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Definitions are presented in the order source books were published (most recent first).

A system of justice premised on each party having an obligation to present evidence and argument to support its position, though there are special obligations of fairness for the Crown prosecutor. A hallmark of Canada’s adversarial system is that the judge, a neutral figure, remains relatively passive during a trial. In the inquisitorial model of justice used in some European countries, judges play a more active role in investigating the alleged offence and questioning witnesses.

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