An obligation to extend the rights a state grants its own citizens, residents, and corporations to foreign citizens, residents, and corporations without discrimination. Most international intellectual property treaties oblige their adherents to extend national treatment to one another, but not necessarily to non-adherents. Thus, Canada, as an adherent of the Berne Convention, must extend to people from other Berne states exactly the same rights relating to authors' works as it extends to Canadians. The other states do the same for Canadians.
The extension by a state to foreign nationals of the same standards of treatment that are accorded to its own nationals, particularly with respect to law enforcement and judicial proceedings.