In the law of treaties, a state or other subject of international law that has expressed its consent to be bound by a treaty.
A state which has consented to be bound by a treaty and for which that treaty is in force.
A person who helps (aids or abets) another person who is the principal offender to commit an offence. A person is guilty as a party only if he or she has done some act to assist or encourage the principal and has a degree of knowledge or common intention related to the offence. A party is guilty of the same offence as the principal, although the sentence imposed on a party may be influenced by the degree of participation. See Criminal Code, section 21.