Marcel Boyer is Bell Canada Professor of Industrial Economics at the Université de Montréal and Vice-President and Chief Economist at the Montreal Economic Institute. He is presently fellow of the C.D. Howe Institute, CIRANO, CIREQ, and the World Academy of Productivity Science, Academic Affiliate of The Analysis Group, member of the executive board of the Canadian Law and Economics Association, member of the board of the Agency for Public-Private Partnerships of Québec, member of the Industry Canada advisory committee on business strategies and innovation, member of the governance committee of the “Sustainable Development and Socially Responsible Investment Chair” (École polytechnique de Paris and Université de Toulouse). Professor Boyer currently conducts research in the areas of investment valuation (risk, flexibility, and real options); efficient organizations, innovation, and competition (competitive social democracy); incentives, incomplete information and uncertainty; and law and economics (environmental issues, copyrights, IPR). Professor Boyer has acted as expert economist on behalf of several national and international corporations and government organizations.